This initial timeline was prepared from three separate sources -- i.e., the timeline in Jean-Marie Mayeur and Madeleine Rebérieux's The Third Republic from its Origins to the Great War, 1871-1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press); a timeline prepared by Daniela Barberis, then a graduate student at the University of Chicago working on Durkheim and French psychology; and Robert A. Jones's notes and timelines, prepared initially for his own use and then later for online distribution.
Like most electronic documents, this timeline should always be viewed as incomplete and subject to continuous additions, revisions, and emendations. It probably contains some errors, and it palpably contains enormous gaps. I expect to continuously correct the errors and fill in the gaps, while also linking these chronological references to other, more detailed information about the events described elsewhere in the Durkheim website.
To this end, I sincerely hope that each of you reading these pages will provide me with additional material, comments, suggestions, and so on. This is an exercise in continuous, collective authorship by any and all interested in the life and work of Durkheim as well as the Durkheimians. Your contributions are more than welcome.
|1784||Durkheim's great-grandfather, Simon Simon Durkheim is appointed rabbi in Mutzig (Alsace). He is later succeeded by his son, Israël David Durkheim.|
|1792||September 21: the First Republic is proclaimed.|
|1798||The birth of Auguste Comte.|
|1804||May 18: the First Republic falls.|
|1806||Birth of Le Play.|
Birth of Charles Renouvier.
Beginning of Louis XVIII's reign, which lasted till 1824.
|1820||Birth of Herbert Spencer (1820-1903).|
|1823||Birth of Paul Janet.|
|1824||Ascension of Charles X.|
Birth of Jean-Martin Charcot (November 29).
Death of Saint-Simon (born in 1760).
|1828||April 21. Birth of Hippolyte Taine, at Vouziers.|
Revolution that deposed Charles X and established constitutional monarchy under Louis Philippe.
The first volume of Comte's Cours de philosophie positive appears.
|1831||Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) comes to Paris.|
|1832||August 16. Birth of Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt.|
|1835||Adolphe Quetelet's Facts, Laws and Phenomena of Natural Philosophy includes the application of Laplace-Gauss "Law of the Normal Distribution of Errors" to individual and social data, and to Quetelet's concept of the "average man."|
|1839||December 18. Birth of Theodule Armand Ribot in Guingamp, Bretagne.|
|1843||March 10. Birth of Gabriel Tarde in Sarlat.|
By 1844-45, Littré had published series of articles on the Cours in Armand Carrel's Le National, and he soon became Comte's chief disciple.
Birth of Alfred Espinas.
|1845||January 22. Birth of Paul Marie Joseph Vidal de la Blache in Pezenas.|
Revolution that led to the fall of constitutional monarchy under Louis Philippe and to the establishment of the Second Republic.
February 25: the Second Republic is proclaimed.
Renouvier publishes his Manuel républicain de l'homme et du citoyen, a volume addressed to school teachers, and urged the preaching of socialism.
|1850||Birth of Charles Richet.|
Comte begins the Système de Politique Positive, ou traitéde Sociologie Instituant la Religion de l'Humanité (to be completed in 1854).
December 2: the coup-d'état of Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte takes place, destroying any possibility of a political career for Charles Renouvier, among others.
March 24: the young Hippolyte Taine (1828-93) wrote to Ernest Havet: "J'essaie de me consoler du présent en lisant les Allemands. Ils sont, par rapport ànous, ce qu'était l'Angleterre par rapport àla France au temps de Voltaire. J'y trouve des idées àdéfrayer tout un siècle."
Louis Napoleon's coup d'etat.
Littré breaks with Comte.
|1855||Le Play publishes Les ouvriers européens.|
May 6: Sigmund Freud is born in Freiberg, Moravia.
During the early summer of 1856, Wundt goes to Berlin University for one semester to work in the physiological laboratories of Johannes Muller (1801-1858) and Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896).
Le Play founds the "Societe d'economie Sociale," which trains in the method for producing monographs (specially on the family) and publishes a Bulletin. Le Play also founds the "ecole des voyages" that gives fellowships for field-work.
July 11: Birth of Alfred Binet in Nice.
April 10: Birth of Lucien Levy-Bruhl.
Death of Auguste Comte (1798-1857).
Wundt's observations about touch sensitivity in hysterical patients lead him to challenge the formulations of the veteran psychophysicist, Ernest Heinrich Weber (1795-1878). Wundt considered this the beginning of his career in psychology.
April 15: David Emile Durkheim is born at Épinal, capital town of the department of Vosges, in Lorraine.
Spring: Wundt applies for employment as assistant to Hermann Helmholtz (1821-1894) in the newly established Physiological Institute at Heidelberg University.
August: Wundt is awarded the assistantship and continues to work for Helmholtz until the end of the 1864-65 academic year.
Taine defends his dissertations: Essai sur les fables de La Fontaine; De personis platonicis.
May 30: Birth of Pierre Janet in Paris.
Darwin publishes The Origin of Species by Natural Selection.
Lazarus and Steinthal publish the Zeitschrift fur Volkerpsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft.
Winter: Wundt begins offering a course on "Anthropology."
Birth of Gaston Richard.
Fechner publishes his Elements of Psychophysics.
|1861||Espinas enters the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where he is taught philosophy by Paul Janet.|
Ribot was received into the École Normale, where he soon attracts the attention of Elme Caro.
Gabriel Monod enters the École Normale.
Ernest Lavisse enters the École Normale.
Summer: Wundt begins offering a course on "Psychology as a Natural Science." His Contributions to a Theory of Sensory Perception recognizes the value of the "new statistics" for psychology.
Littré publishes Auguste Comte et la philosophie positive, with its suggestion that Comte had broken with the true spirit of positivism.
Wundt's publishes his Lectures on Human and Animal Psychology. His involvement in the beginnings of adult education in Germany bring him in close personal contact with other early socialists, such as the philosopher and economist Friedrich Albert Lange (1828-1875) of Zurich University and the co-founder of the German Social Democratic Party, August Bebel (1840- 1913).
Espinas enters the École Normale where he becomes one of Ribot's closest friends.
Paul Janet becomes professor of philosophy at the Sorbonne.
Wundt publishes his Textbook on Human Physiology, and is made associate professor at Heidelberg.
Wundt is elected to the Second Chamber of the Baden Parliament from Heidelberg.
Renouvier writes a book dedicated to the examination of Herbert Spencer's First Principles.
Emile Littré undertakes the editorship of La philosophie positive, which represents his notion of Comtean orthodoxy, accepting the early scientific philosophy but rejecting the Religion of Humanity.
Renouvier founds La Critique philosophique, which gives voice to his particular brand of neo-Kantianism.
With François Pillon, Renouvier founds L'Année philosophique.
Francis Galton adopts Quetelet's statistics for his studies on genius and thus for differential psychology.
Wundt resigns his seat in the Second Chamber of the Baden Parliament.
René Worms is born.
Taine publishes De l'intelligence.
Ribot publishes La psychologie anglaise contemporaine, launching the program of physiological psychology in France.
Birth of Celestin Bougle in Saint-Brieuc (Côtes du Nord).
April 15 and July 11: laws on the press passed.
April 16: municipal law.
May 10: the Treaty of Frankfurt is signed.
May 21-May 28: the Bloody Week.
June 29: the Longchamp review.
July 2: by-elections are held to the National Assembly.
July 5: the manifesto of the comte de Chambord.
Failure of the merger.
August: Wundt is given a salaried appointment in Heidelberg as extraordinary professor, receiving an income only double that which he had received as Helmholtz's assistant more than thirteen years before.
August 29: law on the general councils.
August 31: the loi Rivet defines the powers of Thiers.
December 23: the Catholic Workers' Circles are formed.
Ernest Renan publishes La Réforme intellectuelle et morale.
March 14: the law against the International is passed.
March 30-April 25: addresses of the general councils to Thiers.
May: Ribot give his dissertation, L'Heredite psychologique, to his committee (Caro, Franck, de Remusat) which, though "favorable enough," fears the public presentation of such a positivistic thesis at the Sorbonne. The presentation is delayed for more than a year.
June 29: agreement is reached fixing the evacuation of the occupied departments.
July: protective tariffs.
July 27: military law (five years' service).
September 26: Gambetta's speech at Grenoble.
October 6: a national pilgrimage to Lourdes.
Wundt offers his first course on physiological psychology.
Espinas and Ribot begin their two year collaboration in the translation of Spencer's Principles of Psychology.
Emile Littré establishes the Society of Sociology, which is particularly taken up with the definition of social science and with determining its methods.
Espinas begins work on his thesis on animal societies, with the avowed intent to extract from this study some laws that were common to all societies, not in order to govern them - something that would imply the determination of very special laws - but simply in order to better understand them, and in order to show that, in the end, sociology is possible.
January 7: Napoleon III dies.
March 15: agreement is reached on the evacuation of French territory.
April 28: Barodet is elected in Paris.
May 24: Thiers resigns. MacMahon is appointed as President of the Republic, and Broglie is appointed Vice-president of the Conseil (i.e., deputy premier).
June: Ribot is allowed to defend his thesis at the Sorbonne, and is awarded the doctorate.
July 24: the law declaring the public utility of the erection of a sanctuary at Montmartre is passed.
September 16: French territory is liberated.
September-October: attempts are made at restoration.
November 19: the Septennial law is passed.
Wundt publishes his Principles of Physiological Psychology, summarizing his physiological work during the Heidelberg years. It would become the major textbook and teacher's manual for the future Psychological Institute. Wundt never teaches another course on physiological psychology.
May 16: Broglie is overthrown by the coalition of extremes.
May 22: Cissey becomes vice-president of the Conseil.
Ribot publishes La philosophie de Schopenhauer.
Wundt receives a call to the chair of "inductive philosophy" at the University of Zurich.
Durkheim obtains his baccalauréat ès lettres at the Collège d'Epinal.
The Society of Sociology disappears.
January 30: the Wallon amendment.
February 24: the law on the Senate.
February 25: the law on the organization of the government (pouvoirs publics).
March 10: Buffet becomes vice-president of the Conseil.
July 12: the law relating to the freedom of higher education.
July 16: the law on les rapports des pouvoirs publics.
Wundt arrives in Leipzig to lay the groundwork for a non-experimental psychology, the Völkerpsychologie. Together with the physiological psychology epitomized in his 1873 textbook, the Völkerpsychologie was to become the second branch of a complete psychological science. This bipartite psychology, elaborated and revised during Wundt's Leipzig years, became the foundation of modern psychology as it is usually traced back to Wundt.
Durkheim obtains his baccalauréat ès sciences at the Collège d'Epinal and distinguishes himself in the Concours général.
Albert Schäffle publishes his Bau und Leben der sozialen Körpers.
January 30: Senate elections.
February 20-March 5: parliamentary elections.
March 9: Dufaure as Prime Minister.
October 2-October 10: the first Workers' Congress in Paris.
December 12: the ministry of Jules Simon begins.
Ribot founds the Revue philosophique.
Herbert Spencer publishes The Principles of Sociology, which inspires Espinas, among others. Paul Janet insists that Alfred Espinas suppress the historical introduction of his thesis because he was unwilling to strike out the name of Comte.
Levy-Bruhl enters the École Normale.
May 4: Gambetta gives a speech against clericalism.
May 16: Jules Simon is dismissed.
May 17: the Broglie government begins.
May 18: the manifesto of the 363.
June 25: the dissolution of the Chamber.
October 14-October 28: parliamentary elections.
November 23-4: the Rochebouët ministry.
December 13: the second Dufaure ministry.
Durkheim fails in his first attempt at the entrance examination at the École normale supérieure.
Alfred Espinas (1844-1922) presents Les Sociétés animales, the first Doctorat d'état in sociology in France. He is appointed philosophy professor of the Faculty of Letters at Bordeaux.
January 6: the renewal of the municipal councils.
April 12: amnesty for offences of a political nature in the period of May 16.
May: the opening of the Universal Exhibition.
May: the start of the Freycinet plan.
Binet abandons a career in the law to dedicate himself to medical and scientific studies in the Salpetrière under Charcot, where he remains until 1891.
Espinas is appointed maitre de conferences in philosophy at the University of Douai.
The "Sociétéde l'Enseignement Superieur," financed by Protestant and Jewish sectors of the republican bourgeoisie, begins its advocacy of university reform through the Revue de l'Enseignement Superieur. It includes P. Bert, M. Berthelot, E. Boutmy, F. de Coulanges, P. Gide, P. Janet, E. Laboulaye, E. Lavisse, G. Monod, G. Paris, L. Pasteur, G. Perrot, E. Renan and H. Taine.
Pierre Janet passes his baccalaureat examination and goes to the Lycée Louis-le-Grand for a year in preparation of entrance to the Ecole Normale.
Durkheim fails in his second attempt at the entrance examination at the École normale supérieure.
January 5: the senate elections.
January 30: the resignation of MacMahon. Grévy elected President.
February 4: the Waddington ministry.
June 21: the revision of the constitution, the return of Parliament to Paris, and the death of the Prince Imperial.
August 9: Paul Bert law on teacher-training colleges.
October 20: the Socialist Workers' Congress at Marseille.
December 28: the Freycinet ministry.
Ribot's La psychologie allemande contemporaine is published.
Levy-Bruhl obtains the agrégation in philosophy, together with his fellow pupil Jean Jaurès, and is appointed teacher at Poitiers.
Near the end of the year, Durkheim is at last admitted to the École normale supérieure.
Ferdinand Buisson is appointed Director of Primary Education at the Ministry of Public Instruction, and rapidly becomes the chief official responsible for implementing Ferry's reforms.
February 27: the law on the Higher Council for Public Education.
March 9: Rejection of article 7 by the Senate.
March 18: Law on the granting of degrees and the freedom of higher education.
March 29: Decrees against unauthorized religious orders.
June: Execution of the decrees
July: Amnesty for the communards
July 12: Law abolishing the obligation to rest on Sunday.
July 14: Official celebration of the national festival. Durkheim participates.
August 3: Pierre Janet obtains his licence ès lettres.
September 25: Ferry ministry.
December 21: Law on the secondary education of girls.
Espinas replaces his classmate Liard at the University of Bordeaux.
Breuer begins his two-year treatment of Anna O.
May 12: The protectorate over Tunisia.
June 16: Law on free primary education.
June 30: Law on public meetings.
July 29: Law on the press.
August 21-September 4: Parliamentary elections.
November 14: Gambetta ministry begins.
The École Pratique des Hautes Études creates a chair in the "History of Psychological Doctrines" for Jules Soury, author of several works on the nervous system and protegéof the physiologist Paul Bert (education minister under Gambetta).
Edmond Desmolins founds the Le Playist journal La Reforme sociale.
Janet presents his Doctoral thesis in medicine, L'etat mental des hysteriques.
Freud publishes a monograph on Aphasia, dedicated to Breuer, and a book on cerebral palsy in children (with Oscar Rie).
Perrier publishes his Colonies animales.
January 19: Crash of the Union Générale.
January 26: Gambetta ministry ends.
January 30: Freycinet ministry begins.
March 28: Law on compulsory education and secular character of education.
July 29: Fall of the government in connection with the intervention in Egypt.
August 7: Declerc ministry.
September: Congress of Saint-Etienne
September: The Guesdists part from the possibilists.
December 31: The death of Gambetta.
Paul Déroulède (1846-1914) founds the Ligue des patriotes to avenge France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. It supported Boulangisme for a time, and campaigned for revision of the constitution and a plebiscitary republic under a strong leader.
Durkheim passes the aggrégation (the competitive examination required for admission to the teaching staff of state secondary schools, or lycées), and began teaching philosophy.
The Faculty of Letters at Bordeaux establishes France's first course in pedagogy for prospective school teachers.
January 29: Fallières ministry.
February 21: Ferry's second ministry
July: Ratification by the Chamber of the agreements with the railway companies
August 24: Death of the comte de Chambord
August 25: Protectorate over Annam
March 21: Law on professional trade unions.
April 5: Municipal law.
July 27: Law on divorce.
August 14: Revision of the constitution.
Opening of the Salon des Indépendants.
The state begins to support the pedagogy course as part of its drive for a new system of secular, republican education.
March 28: Protective duties on corn.
March 30: Fall of Ferry.
April 6: Brisson ministry.
June 9: Treaty of Tientsin. China gives up Annam
October 4-18: Parliamentary elections with voting for lists of candidates.
Emile Zola publishes Germinal.
Durkheim's publishes reviews of works by Schaeffle, Fouillée, and Gumplowicz in the Revue philosophique.
Durkheim leaves for Germany, where he will study at Marburg, Berlin, and especially Leipzig.
January 7: Freycinet's third ministry.
January: Boulanger is Minister for War.
January: Stike at Decazeville.
March 13: Formation of Association Catholique de la Jeunesse Française (ACJS)
June 22: Law forbidding heads of families who had reigned in France to stay in France.
October 11-16: First Congress of the Federation of Trade Unions in Lyon
October 30: Law on the laicization of teaching staff in state schools
December 11: Goblet ministry.
Édouard Drumont publishes La France juive, attacking Jews and Jewish financiers.
Durkheim returns from Germany, and publishes "Les Études de science sociale" in the Revue philosophique.
April 20-30: Schnaebelé affair.
May 30: Rouvier ministry. Boulanger leaves the government.
December 2: Resignation of Grévy after the honours scandal.
December 3: Election of Sadi Carnot.
December 12: First Tirard ministry.
Durkheim publishes the fruits of his visit to Germany - i.e., "La Philosophie dans les universités allemandes" and "La Science positive de la morale en Allemagne"
At the instigation of Alfred Espinas and Louis Liard, Durkheim is appointed "Chargéd'un Cours de Science Sociale et de Pédagogie" at Bordeaux.
Durkheim gives opening lecture - later published as "Cours de science sociale: leçon d'ouverture" - of his course on "La Solidaritésociale" at Bordeaux.
March 14: Boulanger put on the retired list.
April 3: The Floquet ministry.
April 15: Boulanger deputy for Nord.
December: First Russian loan raised on the French market.
Durkheim gives opening lecture - later published as "Introduction àla sociologie de la famille" - of his course on "La Famille: origines, types principaux" at Bordeaux.
Durkheim publishes "Le Programme économique de M. Schaeffle " and "Suicide et natalité: étude de statistique morale."
January 27: Boulanger elected in Paris
February 13: Reintroduction of voting by arrondissement.
February 22: Second ministry of Tirard.
April 1: Flight of Boulanger to Brussels.
July 15: Three-year military law.
September 22-October 6: Parliamentary elections.
Durkheim's review of Tönnies' Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft.
March 17: Fourth Freycinet ministry.
October: Congress of Châtellerault and the Allemanist split.
November 12: Cardinal Lavigerie's "Algiers toast."
Durkheim publishes "Les Principes de 1789 et la sociologie."
May 1: Incidents at Fourmies.
May 15: Encyclical Rerum novarum.
July 23: Visit by the French fleet to Kronstadt.
January 11: Customs tariff.
January 20: Declaration by the French cardinals.
February 7-8: Constituent congress of the Fédération des Bourses du Travail at Saint-Etienne.
February 20: Encyclical Au milieu des sollicitudes.
February 27: Loubet ministry.
July 29: Pierre Janet presented his medical thesis. Charcot was chairman and Charles Richet one of the members of the jury.
July: Franco-Russian military agreement.
August: the death of Charcot.
November 19: Delahaye's interpellation on the Panama affair.
December 6: Ribot ministry.
Durkheim presents his doctoral theses to Paris' Faculty of Letters -- De la division du travail social and the Latin thesis on Montesquieu, Quid secundatus politicae scientiae instituendae contulerit.
Xavier Léon and Élie Halévy establish the Revue de metaphysique et de morale, which opposes Durkheim's conception of sociology in a review of his De la division du travail social.
Espinas obtains the chair of social economy at the Sorbonne, considered the first chair in the social sciences in France, resisting attempts by the historian Ernest Lavisse to have the chair defined as social and economic history.
Édouard Drumont founds and begins editing La Libre Parole, a paper soon to be strongly anti-Dreyfusard.
Bougléranks first in the philosophy agrégation and obtains a scholarship for Germany.
Freud and Breuer publish their "Preliminary Communication," entitled "Psychic Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena."
In the legislative elections of 1893 several socialist groups obtain 48 chairs in the Chambre des Deputes.
March: Creation of the republican right.
April 4: Ministry of Charles Dupuy.
August 20-September 3: Parliamentary elections.
December 3: Ministry of Casimier-Périer.
The death of Taine (1828-1893).
Durkheim publishes De la division du travail social.
René Worms founds the Revue international de sociologie, the Bibliothèques Sociologique Internationale, and the Institute International de Sociologie.
May 30: Second ministry of Charles Dupuy.
June 24: Assassination of President Carnot.
June 27: Election of Casimir-Périer to the presidency of the Republic.
July 17 and 27: "Wicked" laws against the anarchists.
September 17-22: The Corporative Congress of Nantes adopts the principles of the general strike.
December: Dreyfus is convicted.
Foundation of the Psychological Review and the Psychological Bulletin, dominated by J.M. Baldwin and H.C. Warren, of Princeton. Binet will be associate editor of this journal.
A.W. Small, of the University of Chicago, creates the American Journal of Sociology (of which Durkheim is an advisory editor until the War).
Durkheim obtains a permanent appointment as associate professor at Bordeaux.
The Revue philosophique starts a new section on "Sociologie" which often receives contributions from Durkheim and his followers.
Binet makes an excursion into the psychic life of insects.
Durkheim publishes "Les Règles de la méthode sociologique" in the Revue philosophique.
January 17: Election of Félix Fauréto the presidency of the Republic.
January 26: Ribot ministry.
September 23-8: Constituent congress of the Confédération Générale du Travail (CGT) at Limoges.
October 1: French protectorate over Madagascar.
November 1: Léon Bourgeois ministry.
Worms founds the Sociétéde Sociologie de Paris. Tarde becomes the first president.
Creation of the Annee psychologique by Binet, who remains director of the journal until his death in 1911. Binet starts a laboratory in Paris for the study of children and experimental teaching.
Freud and Breuer publish the Studies on Hysteria.
Title of Durkheim's course in Bordeaux is changed to "sciences sociales" ("pédagogie" is dropped).
Durkheim publishes Les Règles de la méthode sociologique.
April 29: Méline ministry.
May 24: Congress of Christian Workers at Reims.
May 30: Millerand's speech at Saint-Mandé.
July 10: Law relating to the constitution of the universities.
August 24: Ecclesiastical Congress of Reims.
By invitation of E. Boutmy, Tarde teaches at the École Libre de Sciences Politiques (founded by Taine & Boutmy in 1871) and also at the Collège Libre des Sciences Sociales, founded by Dick May (alias Jeanne Weill).
Third International Congress of Psychology, which no longer carries the adjective "physiological".
Durkheim is nominated Professeur de Science Sociale, the first chair with that name in France.
Levy-Bruhl is appointed to the Sorbonne.
December: Christian Democratic Congress at Lyon.
Maurice Barrès publishes Les Déracinés.
Espinas publishes The Origins of Technology.
Paul Janet publishes Principes de métaphysique et de psychologie.
Durkheim publishes Le Suicide: étude de sociologie.
The Rivista italiana di sociologia is founded.
RenéWorms becomes "professeur d'histoire des doctrines economiques" in the Faculte de droit of Caen.
January 13: Emile Zola, "J'accuse." The next day the "Manifesto of the Intellectuals" is published in L'Aurore. A few days later, various members of the Institut presented a petition to the Chamber of Deputies in support of Zola. The second, ultimately victorious phase of the Dreyfusard campaign had begun.
January 18-25: Violent demonstrations and anti-semitic programs in Algiers
February 20: Durkheim is active in the foundation of the Ligue pour la Defense des Droits de l'Homme, becoming secretary of the Bordeaux branch.
April 9: Law on accidents at work.
May 8 and 22: Parliamentary elections.
June 4: League of the Rights of Man.
June 28: Delcassé becomes Minister for Foreign Affairs
July 10: Marchand at Fashoda
August 31: Suicide of Colonel Henry
October 13: Failure of the Railwaymen's general strike.
November 1: Dupuy ministry.
November 4: Evacuation of Fashoda
December: Foundation of the anti-Dreyfusard Ligue de la Patrie Française (to which Brunetière belonged).
Durkheim founds l'Année sociologique, including "La Prohibition de l'inceste et ses origines" in the first issue.
Durkheim publishes "Représentations individuelles et représentations collectives."
Durkheim publishes "L'Individualism et les intellectuels."
Espinas publishes his Social Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century and the Revolution.
Pierre and Marie Curie discover radium.
Pierre Janet is made "lecturer in psychology" at the Sorbonne.
Desmolins founds the Le Playist École des Roches.
Janet is appointed charge de cours in experimental psychology at the Sorbonne.
January 14: The Indo-Chinese loan is over-subscribed 36 times.
January 15: Formation of the Comitéd'Entente Socialiste
February 18: Loubet elected President of the Republic.
February 23: Attempt at a coup d'état by Déroulède.
March 21: Franco-British agreement on Africa.
June 11: Republican demonstration at Longchamp.
June 22: Waldeck-Rousseau ministry.
August 5: Arthur Fontaine becomes Director of Labour.
August 7-September 9: Trial of Dreyfus at Rennes.
August 9: Secret diplomatic convention with Russia.
September: General Assembly of the Grand Orient eliminates anti-semitic lodges.
September: Completion of Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams.
Death of Paul Janet.
October 10: First manifesto of the Sillon
November 19: Republican festival for the inauguration of the Triomphe de la République by Dalou.
December 3-8: First General Congress of the socialist organizations.
Founding of the Ligue de la patrie française, which "typified all that was bigoted, anti-Semitic, and reactionary in public life."
Durkheim publishes "De la définition des phénomènes religieux" in L'Année sociologique.
February: Jaurès' first instalments of L'Histoire socialiste de la Révolution française.
April 14: Opening of the Universal Exhibition.
May 6: Municipal elections.
June 2: Strike and repression at Chalon-sur-Saône.
July 19: First section of the métro opened.
September 28-30: Socialist congress at Wagram.
September 30: Millerand-Colliard law.
December 1: The bar is opened to women.
December: Secret agreements with Italy.
Tarde is chosen for the chair of modern philosophy at the Collège de France, obtaining 18 of the 29 votes to Bergson's 7. Ribot tries unsuccessfully to change the name of the chair to "sociological psychology, having previously created a section with that name, to be directed by Tarde, in the 4th International Congress of Psychology.
Publication of Binet's De la suggestibilité.
Durkheim is one of the main lecturers at the Congress International de l'éducation Sociale, in the Paris World Fair (Exposition Universelle).
Autumn: Freud forms the Wednesday Psychological Society -- i.e., a small group of interested people (e.g., Kahane, Reitler, Adler, and Stekel), who meet at his home each Wednesday evening to discuss the problems of psychoanalysis.
Henri Berr founds the Revue de synthese historique.
The famous Danish critic Georges Brandès gives a series of lectures in Hungry praising French genius by contrast with its German counterpart.
Durkheim publishes "La Sociologie en France au XIXe siècle."
April 27: Insurrection at Margueritte in Algeria.
May 6: End of the strike at Monceau-le-Mines.
May: Foundation of the Alliance Démocratique.
June 21-2: First congress of the Radical and Radical-Socialist Party.
July 1: Law on associations.
July: Foundation of the Action Libérale Populaire.
December: Ratification of the new military Franco-Russian protocols
Creation of the Banque Française pour le Commerce et l'Industrie (Rouvier).
Durkheim publishes "Deux Lois de l'évolution pénale."
Durkheim publishes the second edition of Les Règles de la méthode sociologique.
March 24: Formation of the French Socialist Party (PSF).
April 27-May 11: Parliamentary elections.
May 8: Martinique: eruption of Mount Pelée.
June 6: Combes ministry.
July 10: Secret diplomatic agreements with Italy.
September 22-7: Montpellier congress of the CGT.
September 26-8: Creation of the Socialist Party of France (PS de F).
November: Italian loan quoted on stock exchange.
Alfred Loisy publishes L'Evangile et l'Eglise.
Durkheim publishes "Sur le totémisme."
Durkheim publishes the second edition of De la division du travail social.
The Mercure de France publishes "Enquête sur l'influence allemande."
Ferdinand Buisson is elected to the Chamber of Deputies his chair in the Science of Education at the Sorbonne becomes vacant. After seeking letters from Boutroux, Buisson, and Victor Brochard, the Council of the Faculty of Letters at the Sorbonne appoints Durkheim chargé d'un cours by a large majority.
Durkheim gives first lecture - later published as "Pédagogie et sociologie" - of his course on "L'Education morale."
February 10-20: Parliamentary debate on the "home distillers."
June 1: Bombardment of Figuig.
July 3: Gast, state-owned, in Paris.
July: First Tour de France.
July 28: Turkish loan for the Baghdad Railway quoted on the stock exchange. October: Workers' campaign against the employment bureaux.
Ernest Lavisse publishes the first volume of his Histoire de France: Tableau de la géographie de la France.
With Marcel Mauss, Durkheim publishes "De quelques formes primitives de classification: contribution àl'étude des représentations collectives."
The death of Renouvier.
The death of Spencer.
In Britain a Sociological Society was founded and sociological teaching was begun at the University of London by Patrick Geddes, Edward Westermarck, A.C. Haddon and L.T. Hobhouse.
January: Foundation of the Fédération Nationale des Jaunes de France.
January: Strikes by agricultural workers in Hérault and Aude.
April 8: Entente Cordiale with Great Britain.
April 18: First number of L'Humanité.
June 12: Paribas enters the Moroccan market.
July 7: Law forbidding all members of religious orders, whether authorized or not, to teach.
July 30: Rupture of diplomatic relations with the Vatican.
November 15: Resignation of André, Minister for War.
December 20: First congress of Christian trade unions.
Freud publishes The Psychopathology of Everyday Life in book form.
Levy-Bruhl becomes titular professor of modern philosophy and director of studies in philosophy.
Founding of the Archiv fur Sozialwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik.
Creation of the Banque de l'Union Parisienne.
January 24: Rouvier government
March: Military service reduced to two years.
March 31: Wilhelm II at Tangier.
April 23-6: Glove Congress: foundation of the Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière (SFIO)
June 6: Fall of Delcassé.
June 29: 8-hour working day in the mines
July 13: Law on compulsory assistance.
July: First federation of Teachers' Trade Unions.
November: Edouard Herriot becomes mayor of Lyon
December 9: Law on the separation of Church and State.
Durkheim publishes "Sur l'organisation matrimoniale des sociétéaustraliennes."
Freud publishes Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality and Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious.
The Catholic philosophy journal Revue néo-scolastique published a series of articles by the Belgian priest Simon Deploige attacking Durkheim's elevation of "society" to a power superior to that of the individual. Durkheim responds in a series of letters to the editors.
January 17: Fallières elected President of the Republic.
February 11: Encyclical Vehementer nos.
March 10: Courrières disaster.
March 14: Sarrien ministry.
April 7: Algeciras Act.
July 13: Obligatory weekly rest of 24 hours.
August: Encyclical Gravissimo officii.
October 8-14: Congress of the CGT at AMiens.
October 25: Clemenceau minitry.
December: Purchase of the Western Railway.
Creation of La Guerre sociale.
Henri Bergson publishes L'Evolution créatrice.
Durkheim publishes "La Détermination du fait moral."
Durkheim is made professeur by a unanimous vote and assumes Buisson's chair.
March 8: First strike by Parisian electricians.
April-May: Conflict between the government and civil servants belonging to trade unions.
June 10-21: The "beggars" revolt culminates in Languedoc.
July 3: Law on the protection of women's wages.
August 11-14: SFIO congress at Nancy.
October 11-14: Radical party congress of Nancy.
December 8: Encyclical Pascendi.
Espinas retires from teaching.
C.G. Jung and Ludwig Biswanger came to visit Freud and, on their return to Zurich, found a small psychoanalytic group.
François Simiand publishes Le Salaire des ouvriers des mines de charbon.
Durkheim responds to Deploige in "Lettres au Directeur de la Revue néo-scolastique."
Émile Boutroux publishes La science et la religion dans la philosophie contemporaine.
First International Congress of Psychoanalysis in Salzburg.
The Société française de philosophie holds its séance on Boutroux's La science et la religion, in which Durkheim participates.
May 3-10: Municipal elections.
June 2-July 30: Serious incidents at Draveil and later at Villeneuve-Saint-Georges.
August 1: Arrest of the secretaries of the CGT.
October 15-18: Unanimity at the SFIO congress in Toulouse.
February 9: Franco-German agreement on Morocco.
March: Strike of the postal workers.
July 12: Jouhax becomes secretary-general of the CGT.
July 24: Briand ministry.
July 25: Blériot flies the Channel.
October: Foundation of La Vie ouvrière.
October 10: Briand's speech at Périgueux.
End of October: The Chamber rejects P.R.
League for the restoration of Vietnam.
Maurice Barrès publishes Colette Baudoche.
First psychoanalytic periodical is founded. Freud is invited to give lectures at Clark University in Worcester, Massachussets, and makes the American journey with Jung and Ferenczi.
April 5: Law on workers' and peasants' pensions.
April 24-May 5: Parliamentary elections.
August 25: Pius X condemns the Sillon.
October 10-17: General strike by the railwaymen.
November 3: Second Briand minitry.
November 14: Jaurès tables in the Chamber his plan for a "New Army"
November 16: Excelsior: full page photos.
At the second International Congress of Psychoanalysis, in Nuremberg, the International Psychoanalytic Association is founded, as well as a second psychoanalytical periodical. Freud publishes A Childhood Memory of Leonardo da Vinci.
Levy-Bruhl's Les Fonctions mentales dans les societes inferieures.
March 2: Monis government.
April: Ngoko-Sangha scandal.
Demonstrations by the wine-growers of Aube.
June 27: Caillaux ministry.
July 1: German gunboat Panther at Agadir.
July 28: Joffre becomes Chief of the General Staff.
November 4: Franco-German convention (Morocco, Congo).
Deploige's articles of 1905-7 are published as Le Conflit de la morale et la sociologie.
Death of Binet. Henri Pieron succeeds him in the Laboratoire de Psychologie Physiologique.
Alfred Adler leaves Freud and founded a dissident society.
January 14: Poincaré ministry.
March 13: Arrest of the leaders of the "Young Tunisians."
March 30: Treaty making Morocco a protectorate.
May 5-12: Municipal elections.
October: Stekel leaves Freud.
Durkheim publishes Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse.
January 17: Poincaré elected President of the Republic.
January 21: Third Briand ministry.
March 22: Barthou ministry.
May 29: Le Sacre du printemps at the Champs-Elysées theatre.
August 7: The three-year law.
September 9: State of siege in Tunisia.
October 16-19: Congress of the Radical and Radical-Socialist party at Pau.
December 9: Doumergue government.
Maurice Barrès publishes La Colline inspirée.
Marcel Proust publishes Du côté de chez Swan.
The chair in the Science of Education at the Sorbonne, originally Buisson's and now Durkheim's, is renamed "Science of Education and Sociology."
Durkheim's hostile review of Deploige's Le Conflit de la morale et la sociologie in L'Annee sociologique refers to "all we owe to Robertson Smith and to the works of the ethnographers of England and America."
Crisis is provoked by the rupture of the relationship between Freud and Jung. The Swiss group is disorganized. Freud publishesTotem and Taboo.
Durkheim's chair at the Sorbonne is renamed "Science of Education and Sociology."
January 13: Creation of the Fédération des Gauches.
February: New Russian loan.
March 16: Mme Caillaux kills the editor of Le Figaro.
March 19: Big Turkish loan.
April 26-May 10: Parliamentary elections.
June 9: Ribot government.
June 13: Viviani government.
June 14-16: Special congress of the SFIO.
June 20: Loan for national defence and Morocco.
June 28: Sarajevo assassination.
July 15: Departure of Poincaréand Viviani for Russia.
Law introducing income tax is passed.
July 23: Austrian ultimatum to Serbia.
July 27: Trade union demonstrations against war.
July 28: Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.
July 29: Poincaréand Viviani return to Paris.
July 30: Russian mobilization. SFIO and CGT meet.
July 31: German ultimatum to Russian and France.
The assassination of Jaurès.
August 1: General mobilization in France.
August 2: Invasion of Belgium.
August 3: Germany declares war on France.
Freud's two sons, Jean-Martin and Ernst are mobilized in the Austrian Army and Freud follows the general trend of patriotic enthusiasm.
Freud publishes his Introductory Lectures to Psychoanalysis.
André Durkheim is sent to the Bulgarian front late in the year.
Durkheim publishes Qui a voulu la guerre? Les origines de la guerre d'après les documents diplomatiques (with E. Denis) and L'Allemagne au-dessus de tout: la mentalite allemande et la guerre.
Levy-Bruhl's La Conflagration européene. Les causes economiques et politiques.
Levy-Bruhl made an attaché(until January of 1919) in the cabinet of the Minister for Munitions, Albert Thomas, who had been his student.
January: André Durkheim is declared missing.
April: Durkheim is devastated by news of André's death.
Death of Ribot.
Publication of Lettres à tous les Français (the 1st, 5th, 10th and 11th by Durkheim).
November 15: Burying himself all the more in the war effort, Durkheim collapses from a stroke after speaking at a committee meeting. Relieved by America's entry into the war, he recovers sufficiently to again take up his work on La Morale; but on November 15, he dies at the age of 59.
Levy-Bruhl takes over the administration of the Revue philosophique.
Levy-Bruhl enters the Institut de France as member for the Academie des sciences morales et politiques.
June: Levy-Bruhl is attached to the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, working in the Service de Documentation for the Congress of Versailles.
Levy-Bruhl is sent to the United States as an exchange professor at Harvard, and takes advantage of his return journey to tour for the Alliance Française, passing through China, Japan, the Philippines, Java, and Indochina.
|1920||Freud nominated Ordinary Professor.|
Death of Espinas.
Levy-Bruhl's La Mentalite primitive.
Levy-Bruhl visits Brazil, where he visits General Rondon. He returned home by way of Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina (where he gave many lectures), Peru and Chile
|1923||Freud discovers the cancerous plaque in his palate and jaw. His daughter Sophie and his grandson Heinerle Halberstadt die. Publication of The Ego and the Id.|
Freud's Inhibition, Symptom and Anxiety. An Auto-biographical Study.
Levy-Bruhl, Paul Rivet and Marcel Mauss create the Institut d'Ethnologie. The latter two are named secretary-generals.
Death of Worms.
Levy-Bruhl invited to the U.S. for the 50th anniversary of John Hopkins University. He delivers the main address on scientific inquiry. Then in San Francisco, Berkeley, he gives 6 lectures on primitive mentality.
Freud's The Future of an Illusion.
Levy-Bruhl's L'Ame primitive.
|1929||Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents.|
Freud awarded the Goethe Prize.
Levy-Bruhl returns to the U.S. to talk about French philosophy before the New York Academy of Arts and Letters.
|1933||Hitler seizes power in Germany.|
|1934||Freud's books are burned in Berlin.|
|1935||Levy-Bruhl meets Freud during a tour of central Europe -- Prague, Zurich and Vienna.|
The entire stock of the International Psychoanalytic Publishing House is confiscated in Leipzig.
Thomas Mann reads an address on the occasion of Freud's 80th birthday.
The Nazis enter Vienna, and Freud finally resigns himself to emigration.
June 4: After arduous negotiations by influential friends, Freud leaves Vienna.
The publication of Moses and Monotheism.
March 13: Lévy-Bruhl dies.
September 23: Freud dies.
|1947||Pierre Janet dies.|